Today, country houses are built mainly in several floors, so the question arises about the construction of the stairs. The design can be made of various materials, on traditional or modern motives. A popular construction material is wood. The wooden staircase, made by hand, looks beautiful and rich, while it will be relatively inexpensive.
In order to know how to make a ladder with your own hands, it is important to study the types and configuration options, to carry out proper preparation of materials. Following the step-by-step instructions, you can assemble a solid ladder, having also gained experience for further work related to home improvement.
It is important to determine the following parameters:
- interfloor height;
- level of permissible load;
- footage of free space, which can be identified under the stairs;
- component parts (type of fencing, steps, their width and height).
The appearance of the design can be very diverse. It all depends on the individual preferences and imagination of the owners.
The main elements of the stairs
The ladder design has a number of components, some of which are mandatory, others are auxiliary and can be used as an exquisite decor or for added convenience:
- Steps. They consist of horizontal and vertical parts, which are called risers and treads. The riser acts as a support for the tread, but you can do without it.
- Support for the steps. As such, there may be a bowstring - a beam supporting the steps from the ends, or a kosour - a beam supporting the steps from the bottom.
- Balusters. Represent a vertically installed supports for the railing, as a rule, are not only functional, but also decorative. There may be different shapes and configurations, made of various materials.
- Handrail. They are an important component of the fence, mounted at the top of the balusters, but sometimes can act as a separate supporting element (where the ladder is adjacent to the wall). Preferably used in homes with young children and older people.
Choosing the type of ladder
When choosing the type of staircase design, one should be guided by some general conditions and take into account the functional purpose of the structures. Next, consider what could be a staircase made of wood.
A simple (standard) ladder is a one-marsh straight construction consisting of railings, kosur, treads and risers. The height of such a ladder is equal to the interfloor distance plus the thickness of the ceiling. The width and massiveness of the product directly depends on the free space in the room where the installation is planned, as well as on personal preferences.
Such a structure is attached only to the ceiling beams. To the floor, as a rule, can not be attached. Bowstrings are installed as supports for the steps - two boards from the formwork are connected. Steps can be made from trimming wide unedged boards.
Ladder with a platform
The site is often designed under the opening between the floors, which will increase the place. For greater convenience and functionality, the staircase is preferably built in such a way that it connects several rooms at the same time.
The choice of the type of design
Before the construction of wooden stairs you need to think about some details of the project. It is necessary to determine the modification of the structure. There are marching, spiral, staircases on the bolets, and, as previously described, on bowstrings and kosoura. Each model has some advantages and disadvantages.
This is the most common option for a private house, which can be easily assembled from wood. Simple design is characterized by spaciousness and ease of operation. Based on the height of the 2nd floor, direct structures come with one or two spans. Such a device is mainly used in rooms with a limited amount of free space. Stairs of this type do not require complex calculations, so they are easy to make yourself.
Types of flight stairs:
- Closed or open type. In the first case, the steps have risers, in the second - they are equipped without them.
- Swivel. Such designs in the direction of movement can be right (turn clockwise), left (counterclockwise).
- With zabezhnymi steps. If there is a small turn, then instead of the platform, you can make the treads.
In addition, straight flight ladders are quarter-turn, semi-turn or circular. The choice should be made on the basis of free space and personal preferences.
On the Bolets
Bolts are special bolts that support steps. Accordingly, the home staircase on the Bolzi is a structure fixed on bolts. Fastening is performed on the wall and on the steps themselves. The design looks quite fashionable and modern, light and airy, but the use of elements is not possible for all types of stairs.
Stairs of this type can be stretched or compact. Despite the apparent lightness, has the utmost strength and reliability, is able to withstand significant loads.
The design of this type is difficult to install, but one of the main advantages is the possibility of placement on a minimum area. Building structures is possible in any part of the room, making it the basis of the composition and a beautiful addition to the interior. For a house where there is a second floor, the construction of a spiral staircase consisting of a rack and wedge-shaped steps is predominantly carried out.
Such a model is inconvenient if you need to raise or lower the overall piece of furniture. It is not recommended to install it in the house where children and elderly people live.
The bowstrings of the stairs are inclined beams to which the steps are fastened to the side from the inside. The elements are fastened with special tightening, which ensures the rigidity of the structure. The ladder on the string can be closed or open modification. Constructions of this type are considered a true work of art.
The only thing that should be taken into account is that the assembly of structures on the string requires a little more space than for other models.
Kosoura called beams that support steps from the bottom. In parallel beams, gash is made on which treads are laid. An interfloor staircase with steps laid on a kosour is considered the most accessible, comfortable and safe to use. For the production mainly used an array of species such as oak, pine, ash and larch.
The steps consist of a tread - a horizontal surface, and a riser - a vertical part. Based on the design of the stairs, the structure can be without risers, which constitute an additional support for the steps.
In this case, the design involves the installation of treads in the grooves of the string to a depth of 20-25 mm. The grooves are made by cutting, gouging or using a milling cutter. The bowstring is connected with tensioning bolts with steps (in the figure marked “a”). Tension screws are located in the middle of the bowstring, under the access belt.
In terms of reliability and simplicity, facilities are the most popular. Kosoura are inclined beams on which are mounted on top of the steps and fences. Can be located on the sides or in the center of the stairs.
There are basic requirements that should be considered when choosing the type and size of stairs:
- The angle of the stairs in residential premises should be in the range of 30-45 °.
- The optimal width of the flight of stairs is 1000-1250 mm, the minimum is 900 mm.
- For the convenience of movement on the stairs, the step height should be 15-19 cm, and the depth (tread width) - 20-30 cm.
- If there is a fence, the height of the railing should be within 800-900 mm, and the distance between the balusters should be no more than 150 mm.
Note that in this case the recommended values are presented. Exact dimensions are set individually for a particular house.
The more common models for a private house are spiral and straight marching stairs. The first is quite complex in execution, requires proper engineering calculations. It should not be guided solely on the schemes presented on the Internet, since it is important to take into account the specifics of the structure itself, the characteristics of the room, the layout and a number of other factors.
For self-production of the best solution is considered to march wooden stairs. In this case, the details of the design can be varied, based on personal preferences and the overall design of the room.
A detailed sketch will show the exact assembly of the structure in the room, convenience and ergonomics of the structure. The figure should show the type of the future structure with exact parameters.
Preparation of materials
Wooden stairs are made from oak, beech and larch. The presented array is expensive, therefore coniferous wood is often used. It has the utmost durability, is easy to process and has an affordable price.
Choose quality and well-dried wood.
Buying wood, you should pay attention to the quality of lumber. On the boards should not be deformation, rotting and dropped knots.
To install a wooden ladder, assemble and prepare the following components:
- bars for kowers with a minimum thickness of 50 mm and a width according to the parameters of the steps;
- boards for treads, thickness 40 mm;
- timber for approaches 30 mm thick;
- balusters, railings and other items that are better not to make, but to buy ready-made;
- Anchor bolts, screws and galvanized screws used for fastening.
You must have tools that include a drill, a hacksaw, a screwdriver, a hammer, a jigsaw, a tape measure, a building corner and a ruler.
Calculation of the main parameters
When building a ladder on your own, it is important to prepare a project according to a correct calculation, since ill-considered actions will lead to the fact that the interfloor construction will turn out to be extremely inconvenient and even dangerous.
The width of the flight of stairs can vary from 1000-1500 mm. The minimum figure of 900 mm - more suitable for spiral staircases. The optimal width for marching models - 1 m, which will create a comfortable ascent and descent of the stairs.
Drawing up the drawing must be done with the calculation of the total thickness of the floor and the floor of the second floor room. On this basis, the last step should be located on the same level with it. If the number of steps in the march is more than 18 pieces, it is preferable to make intermediate platforms.
The optimal height of the span or the distance between the steps and the ceiling is 2 m. This height is enough for the person to move easily without hurting the ceiling or the upper flight of stairs.
A suitable option is selected based on the specifics of the house and the people living there. Experts recommend making a slope of 35-45 °, the excess of the indicator will complicate the rise to the top floor of small children and people with disabilities.
The permissible distance between steps (or the riser width) is 15-19 cm. The number of steps is calculated from the height of the structure. The tread width must be at least 22 cm.
Length of ladder
To determine the length of the stairs, you need to build on the expected place of the beginning and end of the flight of stairs along the ceilings from the 1st to the 2nd floor. The width of the march and the height of the ceiling help to calculate the length of the stairs using the formula for calculating the hypotenuse of a right triangle. For successful installation, it is also important to calculate the slope of the stairs, which can be in the range of 25-40 °.
You can also determine the length of the flight of stairs, knowing such parameters as the dimensions of the steps and their number.
Installation of wooden stairs and steps
We offer step-by-step instructions on how to build a simple one-shot ladder on kosour with your own hands:
1. Beams for the intended kosour are cut according to the length of the stairs. From the side of the bottom edge a piece is cut, the thickness of which is equal to one tread.
2. Before sawing kosur, it is necessary to accurately calculate and make the markup. For this you will need a construction square. When marking one of the legs must correspond to the height of the step, and the second - its depth.
3. The next stage involves sawing up areas for the steps on the markup. Unnecessary piece sawn off using jigsaw.
4. The resulting kosour is installed in its place, on the upper edge of the structure should converge with the level of the clean floor of the 2nd floor, and at the bottom - close to the floor covering on the 1st floor.
5. After the first kosour is ready, a second one should be made according to its model. Based on the expected loads and the width of the structure, the ladder may consist of two, three or more kosur.
5. Begin to mount the finished kosoura in the upper part. For this purpose, metal corners are used - holes are prepared in advance and mounted on them with bolts. Kosour, which is installed against the wall, is mounted on dowels or metal anchors.
6. The boards selected for the risers are sawn in accordance with the dimensions of the latter. Billets are carefully polished and fastened with screws to the kosoura.
7. Then come boards designed for treads. They are sawn and carefully polished. The edge of the outer side is milled in order to obtain a semicircular surface. Treads are fastened to the designated places with self-tapping screws.
8. At this stage it is intended to install a fence. Using studs or wooden dowels, recessed into the holes in the steps, fasten the balusters (in the latter, you also need to make the corresponding holes).
9. It remains only to install the railing, or rather the handrail. For this, the upper part of the balusters must be cut along the oblique (in the direction of the flight of stairs). The handrail is applied on top and secured with screws as shown in the photo below.
The specifics of the preparation of components
For the steps, pieces of the board are selected without any defects. The recommended thickness is 30-40 mm. When preparing, the sharp edges of future steps are rounded to minimize the risk of injury. The front surface and the ends must be sanded. Stairs in most cases act as a decorative component. They can be made from a board of 10 or 15 mm, since the elements are not bearing.
Kosoura in all respects must be equal to each other. Otherwise, the staircase may turn out to be skewed and other defects.
There are several nuances of building a ladder that should be considered in the process of work:
- In most cases, the mount kosov performed on racks. Fixation to the wall is possible if the base is strong enough.
- In the presence of such elements as the steps in the staircase scheme, their installation on kosouri is performed first.
- The installation of steps always starts from the bottom of the structure, gradually moving upwards. This way you can do without additional ladders.
- To install the railing, you need to cut balusters. To do this, the chop thread is attached to the outermost posts and markings are made on it at the top of the balusters. Then the extra details are cut off.
- The manufacture of handrails is made of metal or plastic, it is better to order them in finished form. If the staircase is designed with a turn, then it will be extremely difficult to make a curved handrail from wood.
At the final stage, the symmetry of the structure and the degree of stability of the connections are checked. A number of events are being held:
- grinding components;
- impregnation with formulations to protect against fungus and rot;
- waxing or varnish based on the overall design of the room.
Adhering to the scheme and step by step instructions, everyone will be able to make a ladder for a private house with their own hands. It is important to make the right calculations, make a preliminary drawing and pick up quality materials. Following the content of the article and the specified recommendations, at the exit you can get a comfortable wooden structure that will decorate the house and become an elegant addition to the interior.