In order for the apartment building to be warm and comfortable, a heating system should be installed in it. The power and wiring diagram can be different, since it all depends on the area of the house, the equipment used. What can be the heating system of a three-story private house, how to calculate its power?
Home heating system
Gravity and forced heating systems
For heating a home, you can use gravity or forced systems, which differ in their characteristics.
For gravity heating, non-freezing liquids, for example, antifreeze, are used as a heat carrier, but hot water can also be used.
The coolant circulates without a pump, this happens only due to the occurrence of a temperature difference at the outlet and entrance of the boiler.
Today, this system is already considered obsolete, more and more advanced forced is being used, where the movement of the coolant is carried out using an installed pump. This option is more reliable; it is precisely it that is preferred for installation in private residential buildings.
Boilers for heating system
The heating system of a private house necessarily includes a boiler for heating water. Most often these are modern gas boilers, which are easy to install with your own hands, although it is recommended to connect with the participation of specialists. Such boilers are of two types:
- floor gas boilers can have atmospheric, combined burners. During operation, the equipment does not create a lot of noise; pipes can be connected to it from a common gas pipeline or cylinders can be connected. Some combined models have the ability to work not only on gas, but also on diesel fuel. A similar installation is most often used for the heating system of a large house;
- the wall-mounted gas boiler is small, it is designed to heat a three-story house, it can be installed in any convenient place in the building, most often it is a kitchen or utility rooms. Heating power is small, for a small house on 3 floors it is enough. The boiler is mounted on the wall, the necessary wiring is already moving away from it.
Heating pipe options
The heating system is not only a boiler and radiators, but also pipes along which the coolant moves under pressure. To install a heating interchange for a private three-story house, you can use pipes from the following materials:
Scheme of a home heating system.
- steel pipes (galvanized, stainless). When installing such pipes, it must be taken into account that a welding machine is required for the connection. Such material is durable, its service life is quite large. But there are also disadvantages, which include the need to use welding and the availability of experience with metal threaded joints. Today, steel heating pipes are used less and less, as there are cheaper, but no less high-quality materials;
- heating can be carried out with the help of copper pipelines, which today are considered the most high-quality and reliable. They withstand high pressure, are not susceptible to corrosion, but the cost of such pipes is high, today they are used only for exclusive construction. A special high-temperature soldering using silver is used for the connection. After work, all joints are carefully sealed;
- polymer pipes are a large group that includes polyethylene, metal-plastic, polypropylene with aluminum reinforcement. Products are easily mounted, they are of high quality, some can be mounted inside the wall, which positively affects the interior of the house. The heating system is mounted quickly, various methods are used for connection, including pressing, the use of a special apparatus for welding, temperature connection of pipes.
When choosing pipes, one must take into account how complex the system will be, whether it is possible to lay the pipeline in the walls, what requirements are imposed on the joints.
An example of a heating system
You should consider an example of a heating scheme for a three-story house, made in accordance with all the rules, norms and requirements.
- air temperature outside the house -28 degrees;
- the total duration of the heating period is 214 days per year;
- design temperature for individual rooms does not exceed +25 degrees.
Scheme of the heating system of a three-story house.
Hot water, heated to a temperature of 70-90 degrees, will act as a coolant.
The entire heating system of a three-story building includes a collector wiring, side connections of heating appliances (i.e. radiators). The following materials are accepted as materials for the heating system of a three-story building:
- collector wiring;
- metal-plastic or polypropylene pipes;
- eyeliners, risers that go to the collectors;
- special heating pipes made of metal-plastic with insulation.
Laying for pipelines is carried out in this way:
- for basements - in the open state;
- vertical risers of the system - in a special gate;
- for floor wiring - in floor structures.
To compensate for temperature elongations, it is necessary to use self-compensation of individual sections, such as bends, turns and so on. Fixed sections of the house’s piping system should be separated by fixed fixtures.
An example of a heating system.
The heating system of a three-story house includes the preparation of the project and its approval. After that, you can install the boiler of the selected type, carry out its binding according to the drawn up project. It should not be forgotten that pipelines, all equipment must be earthed in accordance with the standards. In the boiler house itself, where most of the equipment is located, it is necessary to ensure the availability of forced ventilation to ensure air supply and exhaust of combustion products.
At the same time, such calculations are taken into account: for every 1.16 kW of heating power, five cubic meters of air supply are necessary, but not less than 150 sq. Cm. The ventilation hole should not be lower than 30 cm from the floor. For exhaust ventilation, this value is taken into account: for every 17 kW of heating power at home, one square decimeter of air is required. All ventilation pipes must be wrapped with a layer of insulating material.
For the boiler room, where the heating system will be located, lighting is required. The calculation is as follows: for every cubic meter, there should be from 0.03 sq. M of natural light. Electricity must be supplied to the boiler via a cable 3 * 1.5 sq. Mm.
When removing the chimney to the roof, the following conditions must be observed:
- on the same level with the ridge of the roof of the house, if it will be three meters from it;
- higher than the wind zone on the roof, but not lower than half a meter horizontally.
Water supply for the heating system of a three-story house is carried out by connecting it to the general water supply system from the well or by any convenient method according to the project.
Example for calculating heating capacity
Now you need to consider an example of calculating heating power for a three-story private house. To properly heat a room with an area of 10 square meters, it is necessary to use 1 kW of heating power. To calculate the power, it is necessary to divide the total area of the room by ten, but this is an average value, and correction factors should be taken into account:
Table of the main options for calculating the power of the boiler.
- for the premises of the house with two windows facing the north side - 1.3;
- for rooms with two windows that overlook the east and south sides - 1.2;
- for rooms with one window, which is directed to the west or north, 1.1.
That is, the obtained value simply needs to be multiplied by the corresponding coefficient.
For example, you need to calculate the heating power of a house for an area of 10 by 10 meters in the presence of four rooms, each of which has two windows. In this case, you need to cook a single-circuit boiler, the power of which will be 25 kW, running on gas, or a double-circuit boiler for 28 kW, designed to heat water.
It is better to choose steel heating radiators as radiators, for the first floor you can take eight pieces, 2 pieces with a section size of 500 by 800 mm and with a power of 1645 watts will go under each window. For the second and third floors, you can use four pieces for each window. Under each window there is one radiator with dimensions of 600 by 1000 mm and with a capacity of 2353 watts. You will also need pipes made of polypropylene, brackets for hanging radiators, cranes, corners, other fasteners.
In order to arrange heating for a three-story house, you will not only have to put a boiler and hang radiators, you should correctly calculate the entire system, take into account the installation features. There can be several options for a heating system. The calculations themselves are not very complicated, the main thing is not to forget about the coefficients, the value of which depends on which side the windows of the house face.