The industry not so long ago began to produce metal plastic. Pipes from this material have become popular in the field of heating private and multi-apartment buildings. Installation of such a heating system is quite simple and can be performed even by a lay person.
The installation of a heating system from metal-plastic pipes is not an easy task, however, knowing all the nuances you can cope with this without involving expensive specialists.
Choosing a heating scheme
It is worth noting immediately that the heating scheme, in which metal-plastic is used, is compiled on the basis of various factors, for example, the location of the boiler, the location of rooms and other similar ones.
One way or another, we can distinguish the general principles for constructing heating schemes, according to which they can be classified:
- collector circuits;
- single-tube or two-pipe schemes;
- schemes with the upper and lower decoupling of pipes.
There are other types of schemes.
It is worth noting that in many respects the heating scheme depends on the location of the gas boiler, if we are talking about a private house with just such a heating element.
The thing is that a gas boiler can only be installed under certain conditions, that is, with all the requirements and exposure to all specified distances to certain objects according to the technical documentation of the boiler.
In addition, in many ways, the type of heating system diagram determines the point of entry of water pipes into the house. There are other factors.
Scheme of a single-pipe heating system: 1 - supply line, 2 - heating device, 3 - three-way valve, 4 - air outlet, 5 - control valve, 6 - return line.
So, with regard to the specific type of system, for each of them it is possible to single out both positive and negative points. For example, a one-pipe metal-plastic heating system is good, rather, for a small house, used as a summer residence, in which the number of radiators does not exceed 5 units.
This is due to the fact that with a one-pipe design, each subsequent radiator will have a lower temperature than the previous one. With a small number of them, the temperature will be approximately the same, with a large one, the last radiator can never be heated at all.
The positive aspect of such a scheme is that the amount of material used is much less than for other schemes.
As for the collector circuit, it requires the largest amount of material from all existing circuits. However, adjusting the heating temperature of each individual element is so simple that it easily compensates for all costs. In addition, the distribution of heat between all elements is almost ideal.
Something between the two above schemes is a two-pipe heating scheme. It requires slightly higher costs compared to single-tube, but less - compared to collector.
Heating according to this scheme can be with a lower wiring of pipes and an upper one.
Installation of radiators, gas boiler and other elements of the heating system
Installation of the heating system, where metal-plastic is used, begins with the installation of the boiler, radiators and other individual elements of the heating system.
It is worth noting that the installation of gas equipment should be carried out only by qualified workers from the relevant service. Self-assembly of a gas boiler can lead to serious liability.
Metal-plastic radiators are strong and durable. They are distinguished by high heat transfer and environmental friendliness.
As for heating radiators made of metal-plastic, they can be mounted independently. First, the mounting locations of the radiators are selected. They are attached to the walls using special brackets. The brackets, in turn, are attached directly to the walls with anchor bolts. Holes in the walls are drilled under them, and then the bolt itself is screwed into the outer part, reliably fixing the bracket.
If we are talking about cast-iron radiators, then for every 3 sections one bracket is relied on, but there should not be less than two brackets on the entire radiator.
After installing all kinds of equipment, for example, a pressure gauge, if a gas boiler is not equipped with it, or some type of locking fittings, you can start working directly with the pipes.
Work with metal
Plastic is a fairly durable material. Therefore, work can be carried out without special restrictions and requirements. However, there are still some rules:
- installation of pipes should be performed only at positive temperatures above 10 degrees;
- if the plastic was stored at least for some time at lower temperatures, then before starting work it should be allowed to adapt a little to the temperature;
- all such work should be done upon completion of the decoration on the walls of the house;
- metal-plastic should be cut using a special tool - scissors;
- during installation, bending of metal plastic to a fracture should not be allowed, special frames should be used;
- all pipes are attached to the walls without fail with clamps or clips.
It is worth saying a few words about cutting such pipes. Cutting metal, as already mentioned, is best done with special scissors or a pipe cutter. You can, of course, use a hacksaw for metal. Only after cutting the edge of a piece of pipe should be cleaned with sandpaper to even it. You can use a simple sharp knife for this purpose.
There are several ways to connect such pipes, two main methods are used for the heating system:
- using compression fittings;
- using press fittings.
The first method is good because the use of compression fittings greatly simplifies all work. Such fittings do not require any special tools, with the exception of the aforementioned scissors.
In addition to them, you may need:
- set of open-end wrenches or adjustable spanner;
- FUM tape;
FUM tape can be replaced with conventional tow with a special sealant.
As for fittings, they can be of various shapes:
- adapters and so on.
All fittings have a fitting at its end that contains one or more o-rings. In addition, there is a clamping ring and a union nut, which presses the pipe and fitting with each other.
Before connecting the pipe and fitting, put the ring and nut from the fitting onto the pipe. Now you need a calibrator. It serves to create an even round shape at the end of the pipe. If this form does not exist, then in the process of fixing the fitting and pipe, the o-rings on the fitting may simply be damaged, which will lead to leakage.
After calibration, the pipe is put on the fitting. Then the clamping ring and the union nut are tightened into place, which is screwed through the thread until it stops. Tow or FUM tape is pre-wound on the ring.
The nut is tightened with not very much effort. If you apply too much force, then the nut simply bursts or breaks the thread. Tightening should be continued until a characteristic metal creak appears.
As for the use of press fittings, the installation can be divided into two types, although the division should be considered conditional:
- using crimp couplings;
- using press fittings.
This method requires a special tool, for example, press pliers. Such a tool may be mechanical or hydraulic. It is worth noting that each type of press fitting requires the use of its own type of tool, which differs in design and operating principle. For example, sliding press fittings require a special expander.
In addition to this tool, you will need the one indicated above.
The method of bending metal pipes
During the installation process, there is often a need to change the direction of the pipe, that is, to bend the plastic, sometimes even 90 degrees or very close to this value. In this case, it is necessary to use, as already mentioned above, special frames.
The mandrels are springs. They can be of two types:
Naturally, it is not necessary to bend a metal-plastic pipe immediately at a right angle - it will inevitably bend and break, but gradually, that is, by an arc.
With this method, there is one rule that states that the bending radius must be equal to 7 or more diameters of the bending pipe. For example, if the pipe has a diameter of 20 mm, then the bending radius should be at least 140 mm.
If you want to bend the pipe at a right angle right away, then you must use the corner fittings.
Fixing pipes to the walls
Pipes are attached to the walls with clips. The clips themselves are fixed to the walls using self-tapping screws. Then the pipe is simply inserted into the clip until it clicks.
Clips should be installed every 40-50 cm or more often, depending on the diameter of the pipe.