Most recently, a warm floor has appeared, which is a technological innovation that brings comfort and warmth to the home. Such a floor is used not only in residential premises, but also in industrial premises. The popularity of water heated floors is growing rapidly.
A warm water floor helps create a comfortable environment and does not carry the risk of electric shock, unlike floor heating with heating cables.
Such a great demand for the installation of a warm water floor is due to the fact that it has a huge number of advantages.
The main advantages of warm water floors
The main advantages of a warm water floor include the following indicators:
Uniform distribution of heat in the room is one of the advantages in favor of a warm floor.
A warm floor is able to heat quite large areas, which allows saving on thermal energy. According to statistics, the savings are 12% compared with radiator heating.
- Able to create normal temperature conditions for humans at all levels.
- Due to the small indicator of the difference between the temperature regime of the floor and air, a warm water floor does not raise dust.
- The underfloor heating system is designed so that the heat flux in the room is evenly distributed. There are no overheated or cold zones.
- It resists dampness and maintains optimal humidity for humans. It does not harm the general state of health.
- After turning off the circulation of the heat carrier, the warm floor begins to accumulate heat, so for some time the optimum temperature is maintained in the room.
- Long service life of underfloor heating. The pipes that were used to install the underfloor heating can last 50 years.
- A warm water floor does not form an electromagnetic field.
- Do not spoil the interior of the room.
- A variety of food sources can be used to heat water. It all depends on which power source is the most economical.
Different water underfloor heating systems
Wiring diagram for a warm water floor.
Underfloor heating systems are required for underfloor heating. Such heating is able to evenly distribute its heat over the area of the territory. The power source of the water floor is a special coolant located through the pipes. Today, there are two main water floor systems:
- Concrete system.
- Flooring system.
Any system has its own technical features during installation. The concrete system is installed using a concrete screed. Floor systems do not require screed laying. Therefore, such a floor thermal coating is laid by polystyrene laying on aluminum plates. When installing a wooden water floor system, pipes are mounted on the subfloor or logs.
Each underfloor heating system has heat-insulating materials, a pump for circulating fluid, manifolds with fittings and connecting tools. If you want to install it at home in a small area as an additional source of heat, then you can do it yourself without going into the details of some calculations. But if you are going to install a warm water floor system as the main source of heating, then you need to take into account the laws of hydraulics. Therefore, you need to contact only specialists.
Installation Technique for Concrete Water Floor System
Currently, the most popular is the warm floor of the concrete installation system. Pipes of this floor are covered with a concrete screed, therefore, there is no need to install heat separators. The installation technique of water heated floors is divided into steps:
- Dividing the space into sections whose area is not more than 40 m².
- The rough floor is covered with insulating materials.
- Installation of reinforcing coating and installation of pipe contours.
- Work crimping type heating structure.
- The device of concrete screed.
- Fine flooring.
Scheme of the concrete system of a warm water floor.
First of all, experts divide the floor surface into sections of a certain size. The ratio of the sections should correspond to 1 to 2. These parameters are needed to compensate for the increase in screed under the influence of changes in the heat regime. This will prevent cracking. After that, the cleaning of the room from garbage begins. On a cleaned base, insulation materials are laid. The installation of insulation means is necessary so that the warm floor does not lose the heat that will be distributed into the room.
Basically, foam or foam foam is used as a heat-insulating material. The width of the layer of insulating material should be 30-150 mm. It all depends on the thermal conditions of the room. Between sectors of the water floor, a specialized damper tape is mounted around the perimeter. It is necessary in order to compensate for the thermal expansion of the concrete screed. The next step is the installation of reinforcing material and installation of the pipe circuit. Reinforcing mesh mounted in certain sizes. Typically, the cell size is 150x150, the cross section of the bar is 4-5 mm.
If this is required by the laying technique, then specialists perform double laying of the reinforced mesh. Only the second layer will go to the top of the mounted pipes. Pipes are attached to the reinforcing material through special plastic fasteners. Most companies that manufacture warm water floors recommend using specialized wire for fasteners, which are twisted using tools. Masters do not rigidly fasten pipes to reinforcing material, since pipes can expand due to possible jumps in temperature conditions.
Polystyrene water floor system
Flooring flooring system: 1a. Finishing coating (parquet, laminate). 1b. Finishing coating (tile). 2a. Substrate. 3. Heat pipe. 4. Reinforcing mesh. 5. Insulation (polystyrene). 6. The basis.
Such a system has such an advantage as low weight. It is installed when there are restrictions on the loads on the floors with a low height of space. The structure includes specialized boards with dimensions of 30x300x1000 mm. In the plates themselves, peculiar grooves are observed. It is in them that aluminum plates are installed. Pipes are connected to these plates. After the test work is completed, specialists mount the finishing surface. It does not require the installation of a concrete screed.
A moisture-absorbing layer acts as a screed. On warm floors, which will be covered with tiles or linoleum, first install special sheets of GVL, the thickness of which is more than 10 mm. There is also a wooden floor system. It is divided into rack and module. Both systems are installed by specialists when installing underfloor heating in modular panel houses.
With the modular method of installing underfloor heating, chipboard is used. Initially, holes are made in the plates for laying pipes and plates of underfloor heating. Particleboards are used, the thickness of which is 22 mm. Mostly such boards are used to form hard surfaces. As for aluminum plates, they are equipped with the necessary profiles with latches for pipes. Therefore, heat transfer is much more efficient.
Rack and pin method of installing underfloor heating
If the floor is laid with the rack method, then the installation takes place using specially prepared strips. Striped boards are mounted in increments of 150-300 mm, depending on the size of the room. During installation, the distance between the strips must be observed. In this case, it is 20 mm. The rack system is installed on the logs, the distance between them is 600 mm. But there is a deviation from this size if the final surface is covered with ceramic tiles. Then the distance is reduced to 300 mm.
For logs, mineral wool or polystyrene foam is used as insulation material for underfloor heating. It should be noted that the width of the thermal insulation layer will be much thinner compared to the modular system. Thus, the rack system can be used for interfloor ceilings of wooden buildings.