Repair and design

Gas heating systems for private houses

Gas prices are constantly growing, but so far heating with this type of fuel remains one of the most inexpensive. But we are talking about monthly expenses - modern boilers have high efficiency - 95-98%, which reduces costs. Also, a high degree of automation adds popularity - you can leave the house for quite long periods without much risk (if the electricity is not turned off). That is why many people consider gas heating of a private house in the first place.

Gas heating of a private house, while still the most economical

What can be gas heating

For heating, you can use two types of gas - main and liquefied. Main gas at a certain pressure is piped to consumers. This is a single centralized system. Liquefied gas can be supplied in cylinders of different capacities, but usually in 50 liter. It is also poured into gas tanks - special sealed containers for storing this type of fuel.

An approximate picture of the cost of heating with different types of fuel

Cheaper heating - using main gas (not counting the connection), the use of liquefied gas is only slightly cheaper than the use of liquid fuels. These are general statistics, but we must specifically consider for each region - prices differ significantly.

Water heating

Traditionally, private homes make a water heating system. It consists of:

  • a heat source - in this case, a gas boiler;
  • heating radiators;
  • pipes - connecting the boiler and radiators;
  • coolant - water or non-freezing fluid that moves through the system transferring heat from the boiler.

    Scheme of gas water heating for a private house

This is the most general description of the gas-water heating system of a private house, because there are many more additional elements that ensure efficiency and safety. But schematically, these are the main components. In these systems, heating boilers can be on natural or liquefied gas. Some models of floor-standing boilers can work with these two types of fuel, and there are those that do not even require replacement of the burner.

Air (convector) heating

In addition, liquefied gas can also be used as fuel for special convectors. In this case, the premises are heated with heated air, respectively, heating is air. Not so long ago, convectors that can run on liquefied gas appeared on the market. They require reconfiguration, but can work on this type of fuel.

Gas convectors are good if you need to quickly raise the temperature in the room. They begin to warm up the room immediately after turning it on, but also quickly they stop heating - as soon as they turn off. Another drawback is that they dry the air and burn out oxygen. Therefore, good ventilation is required in the room, but there is no need to install radiators and construct a pipeline. So this option has its advantages.

Types of gas boilers

According to the type of installation, two types of gas boilers are distinguished: floor and wall. Wall-mounted can only work with natural gas, floor-mounted - with two types of blue fuel. The advantage of wall-mounted gas boilers is that they can be installed in kitchens - they are automated and safe. Some floor can also be installed in the kitchen (power up to 60 kW), but this room must meet certain requirements. Read more about how and where to install gas boilers read here.

The wall-mounted version is more compact, but less powerful

Types of wall-mounted boilers for heating a house

First of all, it is worth dividing gas heating equipment by functionality: it will be used only for heating or else for the preparation of hot water for technical needs. If water heating is supposed, a double-circuit boiler is needed, only a single-circuit one works for heating.

Wall-mounted gas boilers - a small cabinet that is fashionable to install in the kitchen

Next, you should determine the type of smoke exhaust. There are gas boilers with atmospheric flues and open combustion chambers, and there are turbocharged ones (their combustion chamber is closed). Atmospheric ones require a good chimney and draft in it, oxygen for combustion comes from the room in which the unit is installed, therefore there must be an air supply channel and a working chimney (they all check this when starting up the system).

Types of combustion chambers

Boilers with forced draft (turbocharged) can be installed without a chimney. The smoke outlet of the boiler through a coaxial pipe (also called a pipe in a pipe) can be led directly into the wall. In this case, smoke comes out through one pipe (sways by the turbine), and combustion air flows directly into the combustion chamber through the second.

This type of equipment is good for everyone, except that in winter the coaxial is covered with hoarfrost, which worsens traction. With poor traction, the automatics extinguishes the boiler - so that no combustion products enter the room. Inclusion is possible only when the traction is restored, that is, it is necessary to beat or in some other way to remove snow growths.

There is also a separate type of boiler - condensing. They are characterized by very high efficiency due to the fact that heat is removed from the flue gases (fumes are condensed). But high efficiency is achieved only when operating in low temperature mode - in the return pipe the coolant should not have a temperature above + 40 ° C. If the temperature is even lower - even better.

Condensing boilers are the most efficient

Such conditions are suitable for heating underfloor heating. So if you conceived such a gas heating of a private house - with underfloor heating, then a condensation boiler is what is required. It has few disadvantages - a high price (compared with ordinary ones) and caustic condensate, which makes special demands on the quality of the chimney (from a good stainless steel).

Floor gas boilers

If you need more power, the wall-mounted version is not suitable - they have a maximum capacity of 40-50 kW. In this case, a floor boiler is installed. Here they are of great power, and there are still models that can work in a cascade. So in general it is possible to heat large areas.

Some of the floor boilers can work not only from main gas, but also from liquefied gas. Some may still work with liquid fuels. So these are quite convenient units. Their case is made of steel, and the heat exchanger can be steel or cast iron. Pig-iron weigh and cost more, but have a longer service life - 10-15 years. Inside the case there is a burner, automation and a heat exchanger.

The structure of the floor gas boiler

When choosing, you must pay attention to the functionality of automation. In addition to the standard set - monitoring the presence of gas, flame and traction, there are many more useful functions:

  • maintaining the set temperature
  • the ability to program modes by day or hour,
  • compatibility with room thermostats;
  • adjusting the operation of the boiler to the weather,
  • summer mode - work on heating water without heating;
  • the ability to work in parallel with solar panels or other alternative heat sources, etc.

The wider the functionality of automation, the more expensive the boiler and its maintenance. But also many programs save fuel, which is no less important. In general, you choose.

Schemes of gas heating at home

It will be about water heating using gas. You should immediately determine the type of coolant circulation. It can be natural (such systems are also called gravitational) or forced (with a mandatory pump).

Gravity systems require the installation of large rub rub, that is, a lot of coolant in the system. The second point - due to the fact that the coolant moves through the pipes at a low speed, the heating efficiency is not very high. Long radiators in long branches can be cold. This is about the flaws. There are a lot of them, but there is one big plus - systems with natural circulation are independent of electricity. This is important in areas in which the lights are often turned off.

Scheme of a system with natural circulation

Now a little about systems with forced circulation. They are more efficient - the coolant moves at a given speed, delivering heat to all corners of the system. The presence of the pump allows the use of pipes of small diameters. This means that there is not much coolant in the system and it quickly warms up. In general, they provide a greater level of comfort, but have a serious minus - for work you need electricity, that is, backup power is required. If the light is rarely turned off, it is enough to install an uninterruptible power supply with several batteries. They can provide the boiler for tens of hours. If you turn off the light often and for a long time, you will have to integrate a generator into the system. In any case, these are additional costs and considerable.

There are also combined systems - they are designed as gravitational, but have a built-in circulation pump. This solution can be called ideal from the point of view of practicality: as long as there is light, the heating works as forced, as soon as the power supply is gone, everything works like a gravitational system. In general, a good option, except that the pipes will be held large and too visible.

Wiring method

There are three types of systems - single pipe, double pipe and beam. In single-tube radiators are connected in series to one pipe. This wiring method is economical - fewer pipes are needed, but it is difficult to compensate for - it is difficult to achieve the same heat transfer from radiators. The thing is that the coolant enters the first radiator in the branch hot - immediately from the boiler. He goes through it, cools down a bit, gets to the next, cools down a little more. So all over the branch.

Scheme of a one-pipe gas heating system of a private house

It turns out that the coolant comes to the last radiator much colder than to the first. The only way out is to take this phenomenon into account when designing the system and increase the number of sections in the radiator as you move away from the boiler. But the latest radiators will still remain the coldest.

It is more or less easy to balance the system shown in the photo above. There are thermostats on each radiator - devices that allow you to change the amount of coolant passing through the radiator. In this case, in order not to “crush” the circulation in the entire system, a bypass is placed under each radiator - a jumper through which the heat carrier passes, which did not go through the radiator.

In a two-pipe system, radiators are connected in parallel - to the supply and return pipes. In this system, the flow rate of pipes is much greater, since two threads stretch simultaneously. But in this case, a heat carrier with the same temperature is supplied to each heater, so that the heat transfer of the radiators will be the same (if you put the same batteries).

Two-pipe example

It is also possible to set thermostats in this circuit, but this does not require bypasses - only the flow per radiator is regulated. So despite the greater consumption of pipes, two-pipe systems are more popular.

The radiation method of wiring is the most expensive in terms of the number of tubes. In them, a separate supply and return pipe goes to each radiator. It connects to a collector - a device with one input and several outputs. In this case, adjustment is possible both on the collector and on the radiator using a thermostat.

Beam heating circuit

Gas heating of a private house made according to this scheme will be the most reliable: if one of the pipelines is damaged, all the others will work. Because this method is often chosen if the pipes are hidden in a screed.

Watch the video: How to Install a Heat Pump for Heating & Cooling. Ask This Old House (January 2020).